Histoire régionale du bassin aquitain sud-ouest guyenne gascogne périgord

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History = begining of writing (LATIN for us)

from - 200 to -100 B.C. : begining of the roman conquest

-121 B.C. : Romans beat ligurian and celtic tribes and take the Volces (or Volques) Tectosages land until Tolosa (Toulouse) to create, between Provence and Spain the Roman Provincia (of Braccata, because they discover there the usage of "braies", a kind of trousers). in -118 B.C., after the conquest, Domitius found Narbo Martius (Narbonne), main roman colony ; via domitia links Roma to Spain skirting mediterranean sea. Provence pillage by romans creates revolts. In -107/-106 B.C. Toulouse revolts.

 From -105 to -101 B.C., Cimbers and Teutons columns, coming from Jutland, pillage South of Gaul, to be destroyed by Romans ; 2 attempts to conquest Aquitan (which belongs to the undefined Armoric) by Preconinus and by Manilius. Gallic/celtiberic oppida are created, and a deal is made between Romans (from Narbonne) and Nitiobriges (from Agen). Gascon people, chassed away from the South of the Pyrenees by Pompee, settle in Lungdunum Convenarum (St Bertrand de Cominges).


from -100 to -1 B.C. : Caesar's and Crassus' conquest

Caesar, on the pretext of a Helvetican emigration threat (Helvetican who run away Arioviste's Germans) to Aquitan, to intervene with his 30.000 legionaries.

- 56 B.C.: Crassus, Caesar's young lieutenant (who will take part of the triumvirat), after the victorious siege of Sontiatum oppidum (Lectoure ?) and of Bigaar close to Tartas, beats native tribes at Sos (Lot et Garonne) in -55 B.C.; submission of Aquitan people. The name of Aquitan, wich is distinguished by the Romans from the other parts of Gaul, could mean either "Water land" or more probably "Ask land" (the Basc country). At this time, Aquitan lays from Pyrenees montains to the Garonne river. Strabon claims Aquitans people, by their body shape and by their language, look like Iberian rather than other Gaul people. It seems very few Aquitan people (except troopers, from the north of the Garonne, under Teutomare or Teutomatus ? commandment) help Vercingetorix for the gallic -52 revolt ; Cadurques ressist in Uxellodunum (Puy-d'Issolud in the Lot) until -51. In the whole Gaul, war could have done 1 Million. de victims (out of 10 M. of inhabitants). Agrippa (Vipsanius) reduced a rebellion in Aquitan. In -35 B.C., repression of a revolt by consul Valerius Massena who achieve Aquitania conquest (-27 B.C.), from the Pyrenees montains to the Garonne river. Narbonnaise is an senate province (SPQR) since -22 B.C., wich means legion is not necessary any more to guarantee "pax romana".


from 001 to 100 A.D. : senaturs province and imperial province :

 - 13 B.C.: creation by the Romans of the large imperial or military Aquitan province (at the expense of Celtic Gaul) wich extend until Loire river (Bourges). In 27 A.D., Auguste confirms this extension. Narbonne is a major sea harbour


68 A.D.: A rising managed by the liberal Aquitan governor, the gallo-roman Vindex, against the Neron dictator (wich has created new taxes) is quickly repressed. In 70 A.D., Bordeaux is capital of the whole Aquitan. Under Trajan, roman empire is at the top.


from 100 to 200 A.D. : subdivision of Aquitan

Under Adrien (117-138),  division of Aquitan in 3 parts with Bourges, Bordeaux and Eauze for capitals.

The 3rd subdivision of Aquitan, NOVEMPOPULANIE (Nine People : Tarbelles, Vasates, Elusates, Convènes, Ausques, Consoranni, Lactorates, Boiates, Illuronenses ; capital Eauze then Auch) has not to be confused with Septimanie (the present Languedoc, colonised by 7th legion veterans).

After 160 A.D., limes is crossed by barbarians ; under Commode, tyrannical emperor (180-192), groups of deserters and robbers live in the Sout West.


from 200 to 300 A.D. : latinisation et christianisation

In 212, roman city duty is extend to each people of the Empire. Properous period for Aquitan ; work of the gold and the pyreneanmarble, of the iron and the textile of Perigor, of wheat and cheese, horses, ceramics.


Latin language and vine grow up. Christianity, in competion with others religions, spread through Aix and Bordeaux (St Martin on the Loire river, St Martial at Bordeaux, St Front at Périgueux, St Saturnin at Toulouse in 250 about, St Amateur at Cahors and Rocamadour, St Orens at Auch, St Léon at Bayonne).

 In 257-258 about : Franc raid (going to Spain through Narbonne). In 260-274, constitution of a gaulish kingdom until the north of the Garonne river.

in 275, iberic tribes go through Roncevaux pass and wreck until Bordeaux.

In 276, Alamans' raid : Bordeaux is conquested and destroyed. Towns protect by ramparts and narrow, since rural aristocraty take refuge in its villae (like in Montmaurin), which are fortified (beginnings of castles). Large increase of taxes, mainly with the ploughmen. 285-287 : Bagaudes, ruined and revolted farmers and citizens, devaste Gaul to be finally controled by Maximien.

from 300 to 400 : Vienne diocese

Dioclétien (284-305) bring together provinces in to dioceses ruled vicaires ; VIENNENSIS spread from Nantes to Nice. It can be seen as the first integration of the south-west or south of France. At the end of the III century, or at the begining of the IV, romans withdraw of the Pyrenees montains and set up a limes along Adour river and Gaves (main fortress : Lapurdum = Bayonne). Borders military governors are called duc (dux) or count (city administor). Low-Empire period. Ausone, gallic tribun. From persecuted, christian start to be accepted.

from 400 to ... : 7 Provinces dioces and end of the "pax romana"

In 382, cristianity become State religion, temples of other religions are closed.